Yesterday brought a spate of news reports, many of them inaccurate or oversimplified, about a settlement the U.S. Attorney’s office in Manhattan reached with two major international Internet poker sites—PokerStars and Full Tilt Poker.
The buried lead–and very good news for online poker players–is that Internet poker site PokerStars is back in business. Manhattan U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara ended his case against the site and it is now free to re-enter the U.S. market when states begin permitting Internet gambling, which could start as early as this year in states such as Nevada and Delaware.
The three-way settlement itself is rather complicated. Full Tilt Poker will have to forfeit all of its assets, at this point mostly property, to the U.S. government. PokerStars will then acquire those forfeited Full Tilt Poker assets from the feds in return for its own forfeiture of $547 million. PokerStars also agreed to make available $184 million in funds in deposits held by non-U.S. Full Tilt players, money players believed was lost.
The U.S. government seized these funds on April 15, 2011 when it shut down Full Tilt, PokerStars and a third site, Absolute Poker, on charges of money laundering. The date has become known as Black Friday in the poker community. Specifically, the three sites were charged with violation of the 2006 Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA), which prohibited U.S. banks from transferring funds to off-shore Internet poker and gambling sites. To combat the measure, sites such as PokerStars and Full Tilt began using payment processors that allegedly lied to U.S. banks about their ties to gambling sites. Although this would be fraud under the letter of the law, the U.S. government never claimed payment processors stole money from players or banks and no evidence suggests they did.
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On July 31 the FTC voted to withdraw its 2003 Policy Statement on Monetary Remedies in Competition Cases. Commissioner Ohlhausen issued her first dissent since joining the Commission, and points out the folly and the danger in the Commission’s withdrawal of its Policy Statement.
The Commission supports its action by citing “legal thinking” in favor of heightened monetary penalties and the Policy Statement’s role in dissuading the Commission from following this thinking:
It has been our experience that the Policy Statement has chilled the pursuit of monetary remedies in the years since the statement’s issuance. At a time when Supreme Court jurisprudence has increased burdens on plaintiffs, and legal thinking has begun to encourage greater seeking of disgorgement, the FTC has sought monetary equitable remedies in only two competition cases since we issued the Policy Statement in 2003.
In this case, “legal thinking” apparently amounts to a single 2009 article by Einer Elhague. But it turns out Einer doesn’t represent the entire current of legal thinking on this issue. As it happens, Josh Wright and Judge Ginsburg looked at the evidence in 2010 and found no evidence of increased deterrence (of price fixing) from larger fines:
If the best way to deter price-fixing is to increase fines, then we should expect the number of cartel cases to decrease as fines increase. At this point, however, we do not have any evidence that a still-higher corporate fine would deter price-fixing more effectively. It may simply be that corporate fines are misdirected, so that increasing the severity of sanctions along this margin is at best irrelevant and might counter-productively impose costs upon consumers in the form of higher prices as firms pass on increased monitoring and compliance expenditures. Continue reading →
Steve Titch gave you a thorough run-down last week. Now Tim Carney has a quick primer on the push by big retailers to increase tax collection on goods sold online.
S. 1832, the Marketplace Fairness Act currently enjoys no affirmative votes on WashingtonWatch.com. Good.